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NED: Tasebdadt tamarikanit i wezraâ n tugdut

Page history last edited by takelsertit 10 years, 10 months ago

 

 

 

NED : Tasebdadt* tamarikanit i wezraε n ”tugdut”

 

*Fondation

 

Sγur Thierry Meyssan (24 Yennayer 2004)

 

Deg yinaw-nnes γef Tegnit n Tdukli (discours sur l’état de l’Union [deg 2004]), aselway Bush yenna-d ad as-yekf i National Endowment for Democracy ameṣ̣ruf yugaren snat tikkal win ay tella tettawey-it zik. Tuddsa-a (organisation) yessebded-itt-id Ronald Reagan i wakk-n ad ikemmel lecγal uffiren n CIA s uεiwen n yenmula (syndicats), tiddukliwin ed yikabaren isertiyen deg tmura ay deg bγan Yimarikaniyen ad gren iman-nsen. NED tettzuxxu s yiman-nnes d nettat ay yesseγren wid ay d-yesbedden yerna tesseqdec anmalu n Solidarnosc [deg Pulunya], tarbaεt n Werkawal n 77 (Charte des 77) [deg Cikusluvakya] akked waṭas n trebbaε niḍen. NED d aγlif (ministère) amarikani n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa ay tt-yesseddayen yerna teqqen ama γer ukabar agdudan (républicain), ama γer ukabar amegdu, am wakk-n daγen ay ttekkayen deg useddu-nnes tarbaεt n yemḍebbren n teṛmisin (ccarikat) akked kra n yenmula. Seg tama niḍen, NED tufa-d aṭas n trebbaε niḍen ara tt-iεawnen akk-n ad teg leqdic-nnes deg wenrar, deg wakk timiwa n umaḍal, ula deg Fṛansa ...

 

 

         Alugu n NED

 

Aselway George W. Bush yenna-d, deg 20 Yennayer 2004, deg yinaw-nnes wis tlata γef tegnit n Tdukli, ad yekf i NED ameṣ̣ruf (budget) yugaren snat n tikkal anect tella tettaγ-it zik, yerna tuddsa-a (organisation) ad teqdec, ladγa, i lmend n ”wesnerni n tefranin tilelliyin, ambaddel ilelli (libre-échange), tilelli n tγemsa akked tlelli n yenmula (liberté syndicale) deg Wegmuḍ (Ccerq) Alemmas”. S way-a, Axxam Amellal yebγa, sennig n yimenγi-nni ara yettnaγ s yiserdasen-nnes, ad yeqdec i wakk-n ad yernu ad iger iman-nnes ugar deg tγawsiwin n daxel n kra n Yiwunak (ddulat).

 

Deg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1980, aselway Ronald Reagan isemma-as i Tdukli Tasuvyatit ”Amenkud (Empire) n Cceṛ” yerna yesnulfa-d iberdan imaynuten i lmend n yimenγi mgal tmurt-a. Nnig n ”ẓẓerb-nni” adiplumati-aserdasi ay yes ḥeṛsen Yimarikaniyen Tadukli Tasuvyatit, Washington teqdec daγen i wakk-n ad tessewliwel ”timetti taγarimt (société civile)” i wakk-n ad d-tessker ccwal deg tmurt-a. Lecγal-nni ucmiten uffiren ay tella tetteg-iten CIA kecfent-ten-id tesmilin n ussesten (commissions d’enquêtes), d ay-a ay yejjan medden ad εelmen s way-a yerna ad ssiẓren (condamner) CIA. Dγa, Aseqqamu Aγelnaw n Laman n Yiwunak Yeddukklen yeεzem ad ikemmel leqdic-nnes, maca s yiberdan ”zeddigen” ugar, yerna s yisem niḍen. S way-a, snulfan-d tuddsa (organsiation) tamaynut, yerna d tin ara ṣ̣ṣ̣ren ama d ayt ukabar agdudan (républicain), ama d ayt ukabar amegdu (démocrate), yerna ad tt-ḥekkmen s nnuba. 

 

NED (Tasebdadt Taγelnawt i Tugdut) sbedden-tt-id s wudem unṣ̣ib (officiellement) deg 6 Nwembeṛ 1982, yerna tettwaḥseb d tiddukla ur nqeddec i lmend n yedrimen. D acu kan, ameṣ̣ruf-nnes (budget) d Congress ay as-t-id-yettakfen. Ameṣ̣ruf-a yekcem deg yedrimen ay yettwafraqen i weγlif amarikani n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa, yerna d aḥric seg yedrimen yettunekfayen i Tnegga tamarikanit n Wesnefli Agraγlan (USAID – Agence américain de développement international). I wakk-n ad d-tessken NED iman-nnes d tuddsa tusligt (organisation privée), tettaṭṭaf-d daγen idrimen sγur tlata n tiddukliwin, yerna ula d tineggura-a ttawyent-d idrimen, s webrid arusrid (indirectement) s kra n yiguta (contrats) ay ttgent akked unabaḍ (lḥukuma) amarikani. Tiddukliwin-a d Smith Richardson Foundation, John M. Olin Foundation akked Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation.

 

Amur ameqran seg wid yettwassnen deg umezruy ttekkan deg lecγal uffiren n CIA qedcen, yagi, deg Useqqamu n tedbelt (conseil d’administration) neγ deg tmehla (direction) n NED, gar-asen Otto Reich, John Negroponte, Henry Cisneros akked Elliot Abrams. Ass-a, aselway-nnes d Vin Weber ay yellan d agensas (représentant) n ukabar agdudan (républicain) deg Minnesota, d netta ay d-yesbedden tiddukla takenmagaẓt (ultra-conservatrice) Empower America, yerna d netta daγen ay as-d-ijemεen idrimen i George W. Bush deg lḥemla-nnes n tefranin n 2000. Anemhal-nnes aselkam (directeur exécutif) Carl Gershman, yella zik d atrotski, sakk-in yeqqel d imḍebber n Ukabar anemlay (socialiste) n Yiwunak Yeddukklen (Social Democrats, USA), yerna d amaslaḍ (membre) seg terbaεt n yimagaẓen imaynuten (néoconservateurs).  

 

S way-a, NED tennulfa-d kan akk-n ad tkemmel lecγal uffiren n CIA, maca s ttawilat niḍen, yerna Tagelda Yeddukklen akked Ustṛalya ttekkant deg usseddu-nnes, imi Iwunak Yeddukklen gan imtawaten (accords) akked snat-a n tmura i lmend n wemεiwen deg yinurar n yigen (armée) akked wumel (renseignement).

 

Amenzay (principe) n NED netta ”Ay-n yelhan i Marikan, yelha i umaḍal”. Idrimen-nnes d Aseqqamu n tedbelt (Conseil d’administration) ay yettḍebbiren deg-sen, yerna Aseqqamu-a ttekkan deg-s ama d ayt ukabar agdudan (républicain), ama d ayt ukabar amegdu (démocrate), am wakk-n ay llan daγen yimaslaḍen seg Texxamt n tnezzut (Chambre de commerce) n Yiwunak Yeddukklen akked wenmalu (syndicat) n AFL-CIO. Yal yiwen seg yidisan ay yettekkan deg-s ad d-yessumer (proposer) leqdicat ara teg NED, sakk-in imaslaḍen ad gen tafrant, yerna assumer-nni ur yettwaqbal arma fernen-t sin n yimuren γef tlata (2/3) seg useqqamu-nni. Sakk-in, idrimen ara yettuṣ̣errfen i lmend n leqdic-nni ad ten-aznen i yiwen yisuda (instituts) ay deg yeḥkem yiwen seg yidisan-nni ay yettekkan deg NED [yerna d isuda-a ara igen leqdic-nni deg wenrar].

 

Yuγ lḥal, NED iferren-d timura ara iḥakeṛ i wakk-n ad yekf idrimen i yikabaren-nnes ed yecriken-nnes deg tmetti, yerna itteg ay-a i wakk-n ad yesseγli iduba n tmura-a ed ad d-yessebded iduba imaynuten ay deg ara yessers irgazen ara iḥekmen i lmend n uḥuddu n ”nnfeε n Marikan”, dγa leqdic-nnes ur d-yettili i nnfeε n yiwet kan seg trebbaε-nni ay yettekkan deg NED, wanag i nnfeε n Yiwunak Yeddukklen s lekmal-nnes.

 

NED tennulfa-d, naqal, i lmend n yimenγi mgal n tesdukkla (communisme), maca ula sdeffir ma teγli Tdukli Tasuvyatit, tkemmel NED tqeddec, yerna werjin tufi iman-nnes xir n wakk-n tella ass-a. NED tettini-d, zuna, tqeddec i lmend n wesnerni n tugdut, maca, deg tidet, tqeddec i wakk-n ad tesseγli Iwunak (ddulat), yerna i wakk-n ad tessiweḍ s ay-a, tesnulfuy-d deg tmura-a tinfa timegḍalin (intérêts contradictoires) n tserkemt (classe) n yemḍebbren imarikaniyen. S way-a, ur yelli ccek, NED d nettat ay d ssebba tamezwarut n tlufa n tugdut ara d-iḍerrun deg umaḍal: tqeddec kan i lmend n ucewwel n tsuda (institutions) yerna ay-n ay tettwali NED d tugdut netta d ”tanbaḍt tamelhut (bonne gouvernance)” akk-n ay tt-tebγa Marikan, tettcewwil timura s yisem n yiγerfan-nsent (ccuεub), yerna tessawal deg wemkan-nsen.

 

Seg tama niḍen, NED tettakf idrimen-nnes n lemεawna i yemdanen yettwassnen deg tsertit deg tmura ay tebγa ad tent-tcewwel, dγa s way-a, medden ur zmiren ad ẓren seg wansi ay d-kkan yedrimen-nni, wala i wumi ay d-ttunekfen. Deg waṭas n Yiwunak (ddulat), tirebbaε ay d-yettaṭṭafen ”lemεawnat”-a, tesseqdac-itent NED, war ma ẓrant, d acu kan, imḍebbren-nsent (ay yettemcawaṛen ed NED γef tukci-a n yedrimen), ẓran mliḥ d acu-tt NED ed yeswan-nnes. 

 

NED tesεa ṛebεa n yisuda (instituts) ay iqeddcen seddaw n tecḍaḍt-nnes: 

 

-Ammas amarikani i temselta n yiqeddacen (Centre américain pour la solidarité des travailleurs – ACILS): aselway-nnes d John J. Sweeney ay yellan daγen d amaru amatu (secrétaire général) n wenmalu (syndicat) n AFL-CIO.

 

-Ammas n teṛmist tusligt tagraγlant (Centre pour l’entreprise privée internationale – CIPE). Imḍebber-nnes d Thomas J. Donohue, yerna iqeddec daγen d aselay n Texxamt n tnezzut (chambre de commerce) n Yiwunak Yeddukklen, anamek-nnes d netta ay d ”amεellem n yemεellmen” n teṛmisin (ccarikat).

 

-Asudu agdudan agraγlan (International Republican Institute – IRI): aselway-nnes d asinatur John McCain. Deg 2000, yessers-d iman-nnes, akked George Bush, i wakk-n ad yettwafren d amazwar (candidat) i tefranin tiselwayin i ukabar agdudan (républicain), maca, deg tgara, d Bush ay yettwafernen d amazwar n ukabar-a [yerna d netta ay yeqqlen d aselway]. Ass-a, MacCain d yiwen seg yimeqranen ara yekkaten ḍḍbel i ”wemgaru mgal n tremmiγt (guerre contre le terrorisme)”.

 

-Asudu aγelnaw amagday n tγawsiwin tigraγlanin (Institut national démocratique pour les affaires internationales - NDI). Taselwayt-nnes d taneγlaft tamarikanit taqburt n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa, Madeline K. Albright.

 

Madeleine Albright, taselwayt n NDI

 

Takti-a n usseqdec n yisuda (instituts) tusa-asen-d seg way-n ay gan Yimarikaniyen, zik, asmi ay ṭṭfen Lalman [deg 1945] yerna sqedcen deg-in tisebdadin (fondations) am Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Friedrich Naunmann Stiftung, Hans Seidal Stiftung akked Heinrich Boell Stiftung, yerna ula d tisebdadin-a tesseqdac-iten NED, ass-a, i wakk-n ad tessukk seg-sen idrimen ara tekf i tmura niḍen.

 

Seg tama niḍen, NED tesεa icriken deg waṭas n tmura timeddukkal ay yettekkan deg Temsisit Taṭlasit (Alliance Atlantique) neγ terbaεt-nni n ANZUS n zik [Australia, New Zealand, U.S. – d amtawa (accord) ay gant tmura-a i wemεiwen deg temsal n laman]. Gar yecriken n NED deg tmura-a, ad d-nebder Westminster Foundation for Democracy (deg Tgelda Yeddukklen), International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development (deg Kanada), Tasebdadt (fondation) n Jean-Jaurès akked Tsebdadt n Robert-Schuman (deg Fṛansa), International Liberal Center (deg Sswid) akked Alfred Mozer Foundation (deg Tmura n Wadda [Pays-Bas]).

 

I lmend n umulli-nnes (anniversaire) wis 20, NED tga-d tacrawt (bilant) n wakk ay-n tga, dγa iban-d ass-a la tettεawan s yedrimen akked usselmed ugar n 6000 n tuddsiwin (organisations) tisertiyin neγ timettiyin (sociales) deg umaḍal. Yerna NED tettzuxxu d nettat ay d-yesnulfan Solidarnosc deg Pulunya, tarbaεt n Werkawal (Charte) n 77 deg Cikusluvakya akked tin n Otpor deg Serbya. Daγen tettzuxxu s wesnulfu n ṛṛadyu n ”B92” akked weγmis n ”Oslobodjenje” ay d-itteffγen yal ass deg Yuguslavya taqburt, am wakk-n ay d-tesnulfa aṭas n yimidyaten imzirag (médias indépendants) deg Lεiraq sdeffir ma kecmen-tt Yimarikaniyen.

 

NED tessuffuγ-d aγmis n ”Journal of Democracy” yerna tferreq-it deg umaḍal akk. Tessuffuγ daγen ”Encuentro” ay d-yessawalen ladγa γef Cuba, am wakk-n ay d-tessuffuγ idlisen imazdayen (collectifs). NED tetteg-d daγen isaragen (conférences) yesεan cciεa ay deg d-εerreḍ aggagen-nni (intellectuels) umi tetteg adellel (am umezray [historien] François Furet akked yemḍebber n tγemsa Jean Daniel, deg sin yid-sen seg Fṛansa). NED, deg tgara, ”tessiliγ-d (former)” ikataren (cadres) n tsertit neγ n yenmula (syndicats) deg wakk timiwa n umaḍal, i wakk-n ad lemden amek ara qedcen s ”tugdut”.

 

Tiγbula tunṣ̣ibin (souces officielles) ttinint-d NED tesεa ameṣ̣ruf n 50 kan n yimelyunen n yidulaṛen. D acu kan, NED tetteg aṭas n tγawsiwin ay deg d-ttekkayent tsuda (institutions) niḍen deg umeṣruf. Attekki-a yezmer ad yaweḍ γer wacḥal n twinas (centaines) n yimelyunen n yidulaṛen deg useggas, yerna idrimen-a ttekken-d, s umata, seg weγlif amarikani n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa akked weγlif amarikani n leqdic, war ma nettu CIA, ay yettekkayen deg wanect-a, maca s tuffra. 

 

Sγur Thierry Meyssan

 

Tasuqilt sγur Omar Mouffok

Taγbalut: www.voltairenet.org

 

 

Thierry Meyssan d asellaḍ n tsertit (analyste politique), d netta ay d-yesbedden Aẓeḍḍa n Voltaire (www.voltairenet.org). Yessuffeγ-d adlis n ”L’Effroyable Imposture 2”.

 

 

Γer daγen:

 

Freedom House neγ tilelli s wawal (sγur Voltairenet.org) 

 

USAID ed yiẓedwan iremmaγen n Bush (sγur Edgar González Ruiz)

 

Dduṛ n IRI deg tuttya taserdasit deg Honduras (sγur Eva Golinger)

 

 

 

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