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Afɣanistan ed Pakistan: anda ay tewḥel Marikan

Page history last edited by takelsertit 14 years, 2 months ago

 

 

 

Afγanistan ed Pakistan: anda ay tewḥel Marikan

 

 

10 Yunyu 2009,

 

 

D tadiwennit (interview) ed Mohamed Hassan, d amazzag (spécialiste) deg Wegmuḍ (Ccerq) Alemmas, sγur Grégoire Lalieu ed Michel Collon.

 

 

Iγallen usligen (forces spéciales) imarikaniyen deg yiwet taddart deg Afγanistan

 

Ayγer ay yedda Bush γer Afγanistan ? Ayγer ula d Obama yebγa ad yeqqim din ? Iberdan n lgaz ed upitṛul. Ssebbat ay yejjan Ṭ̣aliban ad d-qqlen ed uγelluy n Hamid Karzai. Anwa ay irebḥen seg uεefyun n Afγanistan ? Ayγer ay tezmer tmurt n Pakistan ad taweḍ γer wedram ?

 

 

Yezmer ad yettwarbeḥ wemgaru (ṭṭrad) n Afγanistan ? Imuzzag (spécialistes) nnan-d ”ala”. Γas akk-n, Tamsisit Taṭlasit (Alliance Atlantique) tettkemmil imenγi-nnes mgal n Ṭ̣aliban, yerna yekker wemgaru ula deg Pakistan. D acu-tent ssebbat n tidet n wemgaru ? Iwunak Yeddukklen la ttnadin amek ara d-ḥettmen adabu-nsen γef tama-a, maca ay-a yezmer ad tt-yerwey ? Tadiwennit-a d aḥric seg umazrar-nneγ, ”Afham n Umaḍal ineslem”, nga-tt ed Mohamed Hassan ay d-yerran γef tuttriwin-nneγ. Hassan yessefham-aγ-d amek ay yessekf γef weγref apakistani ad d-yessukkes tamurt-nnes seg nnger ay izemren ad tt-iḥaz ...

 

 

Deg 2001, Iwunak Yeddukklen bdan-d tamhelt (opération) n ”Enduring Freedom” deg Afγanistan imi, γef leḥsab-nsen, Ṭ̣aliban ugin ad asen-d-kfen Usama Ben Laden. Sebεa n yiseggasen sakk-in, yiwen ur d-mazal yessawal γef weεdaw-a ameqran. Ihi, d acu-tt ssebba n wemgaru-a (ṭṭrad) ass-a ?

 

 

Tamezwarut, yessekf ad teẓrem Ṭ̣aliban ur yelli wacu ay ten-icerken ed Usama Ben Laden. Deg 1996, Ben Laden yettwaẓẓeε-d seg Tgelda Tasaεudit, sakk-in yerwel ad yeffer deg Ssudan. Isaεudiyen ḥeṛsen tamurt-a i wakk-n ad t-id-tessuffeγ, dγa imir-nni ay yedda Ben Laden γer Afγanistan. Maca tinṭagin (attentats) n 11 Ctembeṛ ur sεint assaγ (lien) ed Afγanistan. Mi d-tessutter Washington seg Ṭ̣aliban ad as-kfen Ben Laden, ineggura-a nnan-as kan: ”Ma tebγam ad yettucaṛeε Ben Laden, kfem-aγ-d ttbut [yettekka deg tenṭagin-nni] yerna jjem-t ad yettucaṛeε deg kra n wexxam n ccṛeε ineslem deg kra n tmurt tineslemt”. D acu kan, imagaẓen imaynuten (néoconservateurs) n Bush sqedcen tidyanin-nni 11 Ctembeṛ d ssebba i wkak-n ad wten Afγanistan.

 

 

Maca d acu-tt nneyya-nsen ?

 

 

Tlata n yedlisen imeqranen ara aγ-yejjen ad nefmen iẓuran n tmuγli tamarikanit. Amezwaru d Taggara n Umezruy n Francis Fukuyama. Deg wedlis-a, Fukuyama yettini-d amezruy n yemdanen yuweḍ-d γer tgara-nnes sdeffir n uγelluy n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ed wezraε n tugdut talellamt (démocratie libérale) deg umaḍal. Wis sin, d adlis n Amyewwat n Tγermiwin (Le Choc des Civilisations), n Samuel Huntington. Γef leḥsab n Huntington, imenγi gar yemdanen deg umezruy ur d-yekki seg wemgerrad gar tserkmin (classes), wanag seg wemgerrad gar tγermiwin. Deg wedlis-nnes, Huntington yebḍa amaḍal γef leḥsab n tγermiwin-nnes yemgerraden, yerna yenna-d taγerma tazernant akk (agréssive) nettat d taγerma tineslemt. Ma d adlis wis tlata, Talweḥt n Yicahen Tameqrant (Le Grand Echiquier) n Zbigniew Brzezinski. Deg wedlis-a, Brzezinski yettwali tamurt ara iḥekmen Uṛasya (Eurasie) d nettat ara yeqqlen d tazmert tawḥidt deg umaḍal deg lqern wis 21. Yuγ lḥal, amur ameqran seg yimezdaγen n umaḍal ddren deg tama-a, yerna tadamsa n tama-a teqqel tesεa azal d ameqran ugar.

 

 

Maca ad d-neqqel γer tgara n tallit n Clinton. Deg 1997, tella-d yiwet n taluft n tdamsa d tameqrant: mi d-teḍra taluft-nni n tedrimt deg Asya, NASDAQ yeγli. Mi d-usan yimagaẓen imaynuten (néoconservateurs) akked Bush γer Wexxam Amellal deg 2001, tadamsa tamarikanit tella deg yir tagnit. Γas akk-n, tarbaεt n Bush tessken-d nneyya-nnes seg tazwara: ur yessekf ad tili tmurt ara iεerḍen ad tagar Iwunak Yeddukklen deg tezmert. I lmend n way-a, Iwunak Yeddukklen nudan amek ara ḥekmen amaḍal s tuṭṭfa n teγbula (ressources) ay yesεan azal, ladγa apitṛul ed lgaz

 

 

Naqal, deg tallit n Clinton yagi, Brzezinski yenṣ̣eḥ-it i wakk-n ad Iwunak Yeddukklen ad ḥekmen Tuṛuft, ed way-a s ussemγer n Temsisit Taṭlasit, sakk-in ad kecmen γer Asya Talemmast. D acu kan, asmi ay d-uwḍen yimagaẓen imaynuten, nnan-d : ”Ur nesεi lweqt i wanect-a. Imi mazal taluft-a n tdamsa, yessekf ad d-nessebded ed ad neḥkem Agmuḍ (Ccerq) Alemmas Ameqran i wakk-n ad nesεu apitṛul”. Abeddel-a nezmer ad t-nẓer deg yinaw (discours) n Bush sdeffir n tenṭagin (attentats) n 11 Ctembeṛ, mi d-yenna: ”Ad tilim yid-neγ neγ mgal-nneγ”. Yerna asmi ay d-yesnulfa takti-nni n ”Ugellus n Cceṛ” (Axe du Mal), yella yebγa kan ad yessemγer amgaru (ṭṭrad).

Amgaru (ṭṭrad) n Afγanistan yella-d d ssebba kan i wesleγmu (entraînement) n yiserdasen imarikaniyen i wakk-n ad tili γer-sen ttejṛiba i wasmi ara mmγen γef Lεiraq, yerna deg temsalt n Afγanistan, d tikkelt tamezwarut anda ara gen Yiwunak Yeddukklen amgaru ay deg d CIA kan ara as-d-igen iγawasen (plans), war ma yettekka Pentagone. Yessekf ad teẓrem tukksa n Ṣaddam Ḥusin aṭas ay-a seg wasmi ay as-ssulin leḥsab, qbel n tenṭagin n 11 Ctembeṛ.

 

 

Obama yebγa ad yili d azamul n ubeddel. Ayγer ay yebγa ad yessejhed imenγi deg Afγanistan ugar n Lεiraq ?

 

 

Tamezwarut, amgaru (ṭṭrad) deg Lεiraq yegla-asen-d i Yimarikaniyen s wuguren ur bnin fell-asen. Anabaḍ (lḥukuma) amarikani yella yettxemmim Lεiraq fessuset ugar n Afγanistan, imi Ṣaddam Ḥusin ur yelli yesεi igen (armée) d ameqran yerna amur ameqran seg Yiεiraqiyen llan keṛhen adabu-nnes. Imarikaniyen nnuγen kan kra n wussan, seg 20 Meγres arma d 10 Yebrir 2003, i wakk-n ad ssiwḍen ad ṭṭfen Beγdad. Sakk-in, Imarikaniyen ḥudden kan apitṛul n Lεiraq, wanag jjan kullec ad yeṭṭerḍeq. Paul Bremer, anebbaḍ (gouverneur) amarikani deg Lεiraq, yerẓa llsas n udabu aqbur n Lεiraq, yerna yefsex tamsulta (police) ed yigen (armée) n tmurt-a. Dγa imir-nni ay yerna yimenγi n Yiεiraqiyen deg teqseḥ, am wakk-n ay yeqqel wemgaru deg Lεiraq yesqamay-asen-d ugar n yedrimen i Yimarikaniyen: tmanya n yimelyaṛen n yidulaṛen yal ayyur (yerna nezmer ad nernu amelyaṛ ed wezgen n yidulaṛen niḍen i Afγanistan) !

 

 

Deg tmanya n yiseggasen-nni ay deg ḥekmen yimagaẓen imaynuten (néoconservateurs) deg Yiwunak Yeddukklen, ṣ̣errfen akk idrimen n tmurt deg wemgaru-a (ṭṭrad), yerna ulac akk d acu n lfayda ay yes d-yegla way-a: ur ssawḍen ad d-ssersen talwit deg tmurt, ur ssawḍen ad d-sbedden anabaḍ-nni (lḥukuma) ay bγan, ur ssawḍen ad d-rebḥen agdud aεiraqi γer yidis-nsen, ur ssawḍen ad ṭṭfen apitṛul n Lεiraq.

 

 

Asmi ay d-yekcef yimenγi n Yiεiraqiyen ḍḍeεfan n temnukda (impéralisme) tamarikanit, yerna banen-d Yimarikaniyen ur zmiren ad rebḥen amgaru-a (ṭṭrad), yeqqel wegdud deg Yiwunak Yeddukklen yettarra lbal-nnes ugar γer tsertit. Dγa, asmi ula d agdud yeqqel ur yebγi amgaru-a, Obama yeqqel yessawal γef ubeddel. Nnig way-a, ur akk lejnas qeblen-t: Fṛansa, Lalman ed tmura niḍen ugin ad ddun γer Lεiraq. Abeddel n tikli n Obama deg way-n yerzan amgaru n Lεiraq yebγa daγen ad iḥudd yes-s tadukli-nni ay icerken Iwunak Yeddukklen ed tmura niḍen n Temsisit Taṭlasit (Alliance Atlantique). D acu kan, lemmer ad xeṣ̣ren amgaru ula deg Afγanistan, nezmer ad d-nini ula d tadukli ay icerken Imarikaniyen ed tmura n Temsisit Taṭlasit ad taweḍ γer tgara-nnes.

 

 

Zik Ṭ̣aliban ur llin d iεdawen n Yiwunak Yeddukklen. Taneγlaft taqburt n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa tamarikanit, Madeleine Albright, tṛeḥḥeb s Ṭ̣aliban asmi ay ṭṭfen adabu deg Afγanistan, deg 1996, ed tenna-d ay-a d ”asurif ara d-yawyen ay-n yelhan”. Yerna ahat Iwunak Yeddukklen εawnen Ṭ̣aliban akk-n ad awḍen γer udabu. Γef way-a ay d-tenna tneγlaft tamezwarut tapakistanit, Benazir Bhutto: ”Takti tekka-d seg Langliz, idrimen kkan-d seg Yisaεudiyen,    Assenqed yekka-d seg Pakistan, ma d imrigen (leslaḥ) yekka-d seg Yimarikaniyen”.

 

 

Deg tgara n yiseggasen n 1970, Isuvyatiyen usan-d γer Afγanistan akk-n ad εawnen anabaḍ (lḥukuma) tamesduklit (communiste) ay yellan deg ccwal γef ljal n yimenγi ay yekkren gar Wafγaniyen. Brzezinski, ay yellan imir-nni d aneṣ̣ṣ̣aḥ n uselway amarikani Jimmy Carter, yella yebγa ad yerr Afγanistan d Vietnam n Yisuvyatiyen, i wakk-n ad as-tettunekf tiyita tameqrant i tnemla (socialisme) deg tama-a. I wakk-n ad ḥaṛben Tadukli Tasuvyatit ed unabaḍ-nni amesdukli n Afγanistan, Iwunak Yeddukklen ed Tgelda Tasaεudit εawnen Imjuhad, yerna lemεawna-a tella tettekk seg Pakistan. Asmi ay ffγen yiserdasen isuvyatiyen seg Afγanistan deg 1989, Iwunak Yeddukklen llan ẓran Tadukli Tasuvyatit tella deg yiwet n taluft d tameqrant. Imi ay ssawḍen Yimarikaniyen γer way-n ay bγan deg Afγanistan, jjan tamurt-a ad teγreq deg werway. Deg tidet, Washington tesseqdec Imjuhad i way-n tebγa, sakk-in, asmi ay ifuk nnfeε seg-sen, tḍegger-iten. Maca anwa ay yenḍerren seg way-a ? D iγerfan (ccuεub) n Afγanistan ed Pakistan.

 

 

Yuγ lḥal, asmi imeẓla n wumel (services de renseignement) ipakistaniyen εawnen Imjuhad n Afγanistan akk-n ad nnaγen mgal n Yimesdukliyen (communistes), Ipakistaniyen ur sdukklen tirebbaε-nni n Yemjuhad, wanag yal tarbaεt tella tesεa imḍebber-nnes, yerna Pakistan d imḍebbren-nni ay tεawen [wid-nni umi γγaren ”imasiwen n wemgaru” –seigneurs de la guerre]. Maca asmi ay ttaxren Yiwunak Yeddukklen, yekker yimenγi gar yemḍebbren-nni afγani, yerna amgaru (ṭṭrad) ay d-yellan gar-asen ihudd tamurt arma d llsas. Sin n yimelyunen n Wafγaniyen ay irewlen γer Pakistan, yerna ula d taneggarut-a tella tewḥel deg yiwet n taluft d tameqrant, imi tisin n Wafγaniyen γer Pakistan yeswaγ tadamsa n tmurt-a, yerna deg tallit-nni daγen, nnulfan-d yemḍebbren n trebbaε ay yesnuzuyen tihyufin (drogues) deg Pakistan, yerna d ay-a ay yernan yerwi tagnit.

 

 

Deg tegnit-a ay d-banen Ṭ̣aliban. Ineggura-a d inelmaden n ddin yerna d nitni ay d tasuta (ljil) tamecṭuḥt akk n wid-nni ay d-irewlen seg yimenγi deg Afγanistan. Asmi ay ssawḍen ad ṭṭfen adabu, Iwunak Yeddukklen ed Pakistan walant ay-a d tagnit i wakk-n ad ṣ̣eggment tγawsiwin akk-n ay bγant nitenti. D acu kan, ama d Ṭ̣aliban, neγ d Iwunak Yeddukklen, neγ d Pakistan, yal yiwen deg-sen yella yesεa iswi-nnes (but), yerna iswan-nsen mgerraden mliḥ.

 

 

Amek ?

 

 

Asmi ay qqlent tmura n Asya Talemmast d timzirag (indépendantes), Pakistan tger tamawt taεdawt-nnes tameqrant, Lhend, tella tejhed, ma d nettat tella deg tegnit iweεṛen. Γef way-nni, taburjwazit tapakistanit, i wakk-n ad tesnerni tadamsa n Pakistan ed ad tif tin n Lhend, teεzem ad tesseqdec Afγanistan d tawwurt akk-n ad tekcem γer Asya Talemmast. S way-a, tεawen Ṭ̣aliban akk-n ad awḍen γer udabu deg Afγanistan. Ma d Iwunak Yeddukklen llan bγan ad ṭṭfen tibuγar (richesses) n Asya Talemmast. Takebbanit tamarikanit n Unocal tella tebγa ad tebnu aqadus n upitṛul deg tama-a, yerna i lmend n way-a, yella yessekf ad d-teqqel talwit γer Afγanistan. Ma d Ṭ̣aliban llan bγan, ula d nitni, ad d-rren talwit γer tmurt ed ad gen deg-s tagrawla (révolution) tineslemt, yerna d ay-a daγen ay tella tebγa-t Tgelda Tasaεudit, imi tamurt-a tella tebγa ad tessiweḍ tasnakta (idéologie) tineslemt γer tmura n Asya Talemmast i wakk-n ad tessefcel tazmert n Rusya deg tama-nni ed ad teṭṭef lgaz-nnes. S lemεawna n tmura ijehden n beṛṛa, Ṭ̣aliban nnuγen ed yemḍebbren-nni n wemgaru (ṭṭrad) n Afγanistan, sakk-in ssawḍen ad ṭṭfen adabu. Ma d aγref (cceεb) n Afγanistan, ay yellan yeεya, yagi, seg wacḥal n yiseggasen n wemgaru, yella yebγa talwit, dγa asmi ay d-uwḍen Ṭ̣aliban, aγref iṛeḥḥeb yes-sen.

 

 

Maca deg tgara, leḥsabat-a akk xeṣ̣ren: Imarikaniyen ur ssawḍen ad d-rren talwit γer tama-a, Pakistan ur tessaweḍ ad teldey abrid γer Asya Talemmast, ma d Ṭ̣aliban yettwakkes-asen udabu. Ayγer ?

 

 

Afγanistan llan deg-s aṭas n yiγerfan (ccuεub). Ameqran akk deg-sen netta d Ipactunen: azal n 50% seg Wafγaniyen d Ipactunen. Sakk-in, llan Yitajikiyen, Ihazaraten, ed Yikazaxiten, yerna imasiwen-nni n wemgaru (seigneurs de la guerre) seg yiγerfan-a yerna mseεdawen gar-asen. Sakk-in, llant tdersiyin (minorités) timecṭuḥin. Ṭ̣aliban d Ipactunen. Yessekf ad nẓer Ipactunen d imdanen ay iḥemmlen ad ddren d ilelliyen! Iwunak Yeddukklen ed Pakistan llan bγan ad sqedcen Ipactunen d imkariyen (mercenaires), maca Ṭ̣aliban llan ttwalin tiγawsiwin akk-n niḍen. Nnig way-a, Ipactunen ur steεṛifen s tlisa yellan gar Afγanistan ed Pakistan.

 

 

Ayγer ?

 

 

Yessekf ad neqqel γer lqern wis 19, asmi ay tella Lhend d tahrest (colonie) γlayen n Umenkud (Empire) abriṭani. Ibriṭaniyen llan ugaden seg Rusya ay yellan tessemγar akal-nnes deg Asya Talemmast. I wakk-n ad ḥudden Lhend, Ibriṭaniyen εerḍen ad sqedcen Afγanistan. Ay-a yessaweḍ Ibriṭaniyen ad gen tlata n yemgura (ṭṭradat) ed Afγanistan. Maca ay-n ay aγ-yerzan nekni d ay-n ay d-yellan seg wemgaru-nni wis sin gar Yebriṭaniyen ed Afγanistan: deg 1893, anebbaḍ (gouverneur) abriṭani n Lhend, Sir Durand, iga-d talast ay yes yebḍa akal n Yipactunen, i wakk-n ad iḥudd tahrest-nnes, dγa talast-nni d tin ay yes d-yesnulfa ”tama n uḥuddu” (zone tampon) gar Afγanistan ed Lhend tabriṭanit. Talast-nni d nettat ay d talast n wass-a gar Afγanistan ed Pakistan. Γef way-a, aṭas n Yipactunen ur steεṛifen ula d Pakistan. Asmi ay teqqel Pakistan d timziregt (indépendante), yiwet kan n tmurt seg Yeγlanen Yeddukklen (Nations Unies) ur nesteεṛef yes-s: d Afγanistan!

 

 

Dγa d ay-n ibanen asmi ay ṭṭfen Ṭ̣aliban adabu, ur qebblen ad ddun s ṛṛay n yibeṛṛaniyen. Deg Mayyu 2001, setta wayyuren qbel ad d-ilint tenṭagin (attentats) n World Trade Center, Washington tekfa i udabu n Ṭ̣aliban 43 n yimelyunen n yidulaṛen i lmend n usenfar-nni (projet) n uqadus n upitṛul n Unocal, maca ay-a ur d-yuwiy lfayda. Sakk-in, deg 11 Ctembeṛ, yeγli ḍḍbel deg waman, Imarikaniyen beddlen tikli.

 

 

Iγallen n temsisit (coalition) sseγlin adabu n Ṭ̣aliban s tefses, maca ur ssawḍen ad ṭṭfen tamurt n Afγanistan. Ayγer ?

 

 

Tamezwarut, anabaḍ (lḥukuma) n Afγanistan n wass-a ur steεṛifen yes-s Yipactunen. Asmi ay ttwakksen Ṭ̣aliban seg udabu, Iwunak Yeddukklen ssersen Hamid Karzai d aselway. Karzai yeqdec deg Unocal, netta d Apactun maca ur yeddir deg Afγanistan. Yuγ lḥal, Ipactunen ay yellan d aγref (cceεb) ameqran akk deg tmurt ur sεin aṭas n yergazen deg unabaḍ n Karzai. Washington tessers-d kan deg unabaḍ kra n Yipactunen n tkellax, d wid ay yes ur yesteεṛef weγref. Deg tezwara, εerḍen Yiwunak Yeddukklen ad d-aγen kra n Yipactunen ay yesεan cciεa γer weγref i wakk-n ad ttekkin deg unabaḍ, maca Ipactunen-a, mi ay uwyen idrimen, rewlen: akk-n ay d-nniγ yagi, Ipactunen ḥemmlen ad ilin d ilelliyen!

 

Hamid Karzai, aselway n Afγanistan 

akked Bush, deffir-s

 

Tis snat, imasiwen n wemgaru (seigneurs de la guerre) ay yettekkan deg unabaḍ (lḥukuma) afγani n wass-a, yal yiwen deg-sen iqeddec γef nnfeε-nnes. Ur ttxelliṣ̣en tiwsi (impôts) yerna ttakren lxir n tmurt. Yal aγlif (ministère) yeṭṭef-it kra n yemḍebber n wemgaru i yiman-nnes kan, yerna tagnit-a n werway tessekref akk anabaḍ.

 

 

Tis tlata, imasiwen n wemgaru (seigneurs de la guerre) ur ttgen laman deg Yipactunen. Ttxemmimen lemmer d Ipactunen ara yeṭṭfen anabaḍ (lḥukuma), ad d-ḥettmen tamuγli-nsen. Lmufid, deg unabaḍ-a yal yiwen d aεdaw n wayeḍ, yerna akk tirga-nni ay ssarment tmura tutrimin (tiγerbiyin) ad tent-rrent d tidet deg Afγanistan ffγent-d mxalfa !

 

 

Deg tgara, nezmer daγen ad d-nini iγallen n Temsisit Taṭlasit (Alliance Atlantique) ur ttεawanen Hamid Karzai deg leqdic-nnes, ladγa imi la d-berrun i tleffuγin (lbumbat) ara ineγγen ifellaḥen deg wakal-nsen, deg tmesgidiwin (lejwameε), deg tmeγriwin neγ deg tmeḍlin (ljanazat). Anabaḍ (lḥukuma) afγani n wass-a ttwalint yimezdaγen n tmurt d allal (instrument) ara sseqdacent tmura ay d-yemmγen fell-asen. Timenγiwin-nni n medden s ufus n Temsisit Taṭlasit yessaweḍ imezdaγen n tmurt ad d-nekren ed ad ddukklen ed Ṭ̣aliban akk-n ad ḥudden tamurt-nsen.

 

 

S wacu ay d-yegla wemgaru-a (ṭṭrad) : tafellaḥt n uεefyun terna s 3000% seg wasmi ay γlin Ṭ̣aliban. Zik, Aγlif (ministère) n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa yella yetthamay Ṭ̣aliban s usseqdec n uεefyun akk-n ad d-awyen idrimen ed ad kemmlen imenγi-nsen ... Aεefyun d afaris akruran (produit chimique) ay d-ittekken seg yiwen n yemγi, tajaḥbuḍt (pavot). Asmi ara d-tekf tjaḥbuḍt tajejjigt-nnes, ad tt-tgezmeḍ, sakk-in ad d-jemεeḍ iγi-nni ay d-yettenγalen seg-s ed ad t-tessenzeḍ. D ay-a ay ttgen yifellaḥen afγaniyen. Sakk-in, llan wid ara yessekwen iγi-nni, ad t-rren γer tmacint ed ad as-rnun ifarisen ikruranen i wakk-n ad d-gen yes-s aεefyun. Ihi, wakk-n ad d-tgeḍ aεefyun, ad teḥwijeḍ inegmi (laboratoire) yerna ad teḥwijeḍ daγen tamussni deg tekrura (chimie). Ur cikkeγ ifellaḥen afγaniyen sεan akk igerdasen (diplômes) deg tekrura. Lemmer d ay akk-a ay yella lḥal, tili Afγanistan ad tili d tamurt yenneflin (développée)! I wakk-n ad d-trebḥeḍ idrimen seg ussenzi n uεefyun, teḥwajeḍ talujistit (logistique) i wakk-n ad tessiwḍeḍ ad t-id-teskecmeḍ γer tmura tutrimin (tiγerbiyin). Ṭ̣aliban ur sεin acemma seg way-a. Yuγ lḥal, aεefyun d imasiwen n wemgaru (seigneurs de la guerre) ay t-yesnuzuyen, yerna CIA tettεawan-iten deg way-a. [CIA ed yedrimen n yumsen n tehyufin]. Deg tuget, aεefyun ittekk-d seg yimeẓla n wumel (services de renseignement) imarikaniyen, yerna sseqdacen-t akk-n ad d-rebḥen yes-s idrimen, d nitni ay yessawaḍen aεefyun γer tmura tutrimin, snuzuyen-t s wazal n ssuq, yerna idrimen-nni ay d-ssekcamen seg-s sseqdacen-ten akk-n ad gen yes-sen imgura-nsen.

 

 

Deg Afγanistan, tafellaḥt n tjaḥbuḍt tebda-d asmi ay yekker wemgaru (ṭṭrad) ed Yisuvyatiyen yerna ass-a, tafellaḥt n uεefyun attan gar yifassen n yimasiwen n wemgaru (seigneurs de la guerre). Yuγ lḥal, afellaḥ deg Afγanistan yesmenyaf ad yesfulleḥ tajaḥbuḍt akk-n d-yerbeḥ ugar n yedrimen, wala ad yesfulleḥ ṭumaṭic. S way-a, imasiwen n wemgaru, i wakk-n ad ten-yeqbel weγref (cceεb), jjan-t ad yesfulleḥ ay-n ay as-yehwan.

 

 

Wanag Ṭ̣aliban, asmi ay ṭṭfen adabu deg yiseggasen n 1990, sserγen akk igran n tjaḥbuḍt, yerna ay-a yesserbeḥ-asen-d aṭas n teεdawt ed yifellaḥen. Γef way-a, ass-a Ṭ̣aliban ur gdilen (mniεen) ifellaḥen seg wesfulleḥ n tjaḥbuḍt, maca gedlen-asen ad d-gen yes-s aεefyun. Nnig way-a, Ṭ̣aliban rebbḥen-d idrimen seg tfellaḥt-a imi ifellaḥen ttakfen-asen tabzart. Yuγ lḥal, anabaḍ (lḥukuma) yeqqel ur yezmir akk ad d-yejmeε tiwsi (impôts) seg tmiwa n wenẓul (sud) n tmurt, imi ay ssawḍen Ṭ̣aliban ṭṭfen kullec deg tmiwa-a, yerna anabaḍ ur nezmir ad d-yejmeε tiwsi deg tmurt-nnes ur yelli d anabaḍ ! 

 

 

Aṭas n yimuzzag (spécialistes) ay yettwalin d awezγi ad yettwarbeḥ wemgaru (ṭṭrad) deg Afγanistan. Ajiniṛal afṛensis Georgelin isemma-as i wemgaru-a : ”axeṣ̣ṣ̣ar ur yezmir yiwen ad t-yefru”. D acu-ten wugur ay d-ttmagaren yiγallen n temsisit (coalition) ?

 

 

Tamsisit Taṭlasit (Alliance Atlantique) tneγγ iγarimen (civils) yal ass. Γef way-a, imezdaγen n Afγanistan ddan ed Ṭ̣aliban. Ass-a, Ṭ̣aliban ṭṭfen anẓul (sud) n tmurt yerna sbedden anabaḍ-nsen (lḥukuma) s lfeεl deg yal taddart. Imir-a Ṭ̣aliban xelḍen ed weγref (cceεb) yerna iγallen n Temsisit Taṭlasit ttemttaten-asen yiserdasen. Γef way-a, akk-n kan ara yewliwel kra ay deg ara cikken, iserdasen imarikaniyen ad wten ed ad nγen medden war ma gan amgerrad gar-asen. Ihi seg tama, Afγaniyen ḥeṛsen-ten yiγallen imnukdanen (impérialistes) ay d-iberrun i tleffuγin (lbumbat) γer yiγarimen, seg tama niḍen, ḥeṛsen-ten yimasiwen n wemgaru (seigneurs de la guerre) ara yettakren akk ay-n tesεa tmurt yerna snuzuyen aεefyun. D ay-a ay yejjan aγref ad yeqqel yettεawan Ṭ̣aliban. Afγaniyen ur la ttεawanen Ṭ̣aliban γef tekta-nsen, wanag ttεawanen-ten akk-n ad d-rren talwit γer tmurt. Akk-a swaswa ay teḍra deg 1992.

 

 

Γef way-a, ahat, ay d-yenna Obama yewjed ad yemciweṛ akked Ṭ̣aliban uskiren (modérés) ?

 

 

Obama la iεerreḍ ad iḥudd Iwunak Yeddukklen seg yiwet n taluft ara yettimγuren seg wasmi ay d-tebda, sebεa n yiseggasen ay-a. Ay-a yewεeṛ aṭas. Obama yebγa ad d-yessken Iwunak Yeddukklen ur la ttgen amgaru (ṭṭrad) mgal Yinselmen, yerna netta ur yeqbil takti-nni n wemyewwat n tγermiwin (choc des civilisations). Γef way-a ay d-yenna yewjed ad yemciweṛ ed Ṭ̣aliban uskiren (modérés). D ta ay d tasertit tamaynut n Yiwunak Yeddukklen deg waṭas n tmiwa n umaḍal anda ay llan yimussuten (mouvements) inselmen: Imarikaniyen bγan ad ten-bḍun γef sin, wid yelhan d wid n dyiri.

 

 

Ur ẓriγ ma yella lemcawṛat am ti zemrent ad fakent taluft-a. Ma yella tefren Washington ad taγ abrid-a, ulac ccekk, ihi, ad d-theyyi lḥemla ay yes ara d-tessken Ṭ̣aliban d imdanen yelhan. D acu kan, Ṭ̣aliban ur sεin lεeqleyya yalhan: rẓan ifakanen (temples) ibudiyen [n Bamiyan] i wakk-n ad d-sbedden tagrawla tineslemt, ttḍafaren tikli n dyiri ed tsednan yerna sεan tamuγli taqburt γef umaḍal. Maca, tikkelt-a, i wakk-n ad d-rebḥen aγref (cceεb) s idis-nsen, Ṭ̣aliban lemden-d seg tuccḍiwin-nsen n zik yerna ur la tent-ttalsen. Bedreγ-d yagi tafellaḥt n tjiḥbuḍt, yerna ad d-rnuγ amedya (lemtel) niḍen: zik, Ṭ̣aliban ur qbilen ad ddunt teqcicin γer uγerbaz, maca ass-a, qeblen ay-a. Ass-a, Ṭ̣aliban ddan γer sdat yerna qqlen jehden ugar akk-n ad nnaγen. Maca ay-a ur yebγi ad d-yini wejden akk-n ad mciwṛen ed Yiwunak Yeddukklen. Nnig way-a, yessekf daγen ad terrem deg lbal-nwen imir-a, taluft tameqrant ur telli deg Afγanistan, wanag deg Pakistan.

 

 

Ayγer amgaru (ṭṭrad) n Afγanistan yegla-d s taluft am ta deg Pakistan ?

 

 

Akk-n ay d-nniγ yagi, talast-nni ay yessers Durand yerna tebḍa akal n Yipactunen d nettat ay yeqqlen d talast gar Afγanistan ed Pakistan. Anamek (lmeεna) n way-a, ass-a llan Yipactunen ama deg Afγanistan, ama deg Pakistan. Deg tneggarut-a, Ipactunen d nitni ay d aγref (cceεb) ameqran wis sin sdeffir n Yipenjabiyen. Ay-a yesεa azal d ameqran. Seg wasmi ay teqqel Pakistan d timziregt (indépendante), tadγert (élite) tapakistanit tebded ed temnukda (impéralisme) tamarikanit. Yiwen yezmer ad yeqdec i wemεellem-nnes war uguren lemmer ad as-yeg kra n ccγel deg tmurt ibeεden, am deg Temrikt n Wenẓul (Sud) neγ deg Tefriqt. Maca deg temsalt n Afγanistan, Pakistan ur tezmir ad tεawen Iwunak Yeddukklen war ma tenṭeḍ-itt-id taluft ula d nettat, imi ay tt-cerkent tlisa yerna cerken-tt yiγerfan ed Afγanistan. 

 

 

Llan Ṭ̣aliban ula deg ugafa (nord) n Pakistan. Yal ass-a ttemmγen yerna ttruẓun aεwin-nni ay ttawyen yiserdasen n temsisit (coalition) i yiγallen-nsen. Aεwin-a ittekk seg Pakistan γer Afγanistan seg yiwen n wemkan yesεan azal, yezga-d γef tlisa n snat-a n tmura. I wakk-n ad yefru wugur-a, anabaḍ (lḥukuma) n Pakistan ay itteddun s ṛṛay n Washington, yejja Tamsisit Taṭlasit (Alliance Atlantique) ad tebru i tleffuγin-nnes γef Yipactunen deg wakal apakistani. D ay-a ay yejjan Ṭ̣aliban n Pakistan ad d-banen yerna qqlen imir-a ttwalin aεdaw-nsen d Pakistan. Ṭ̣aliban n Pakistan uwḍen imir-a armi ay d-nnan bγan ad kecmen γer Islamabad. Γef way-a, teqqel talast gar snat-a n tmura amzun ur telli. Yerna imir-a aγref (cceεb) apakistani yessekf ad imager ugar-a: D acu n wezref ay as-d-yeqqimen i unabaḍ apakistani akk-n ad yeḥkem deg lweqt ay deg yettajja Tamsisit Taṭlasit ad twet imezdaγen n tmurt-nnes ? Aγref apakistani yesεa, imir-a, snat n tifratin: ya ad t-yawey nnif γef tmurt-nnes ed ad yagi lbaṭel ay d-ḥettmen fell-asen Yimarikaniyen, neγ ad ikemmel deg webrid-a ara yessiwḍen tamurt-nnes γer nnger.

 

 

Sanda ay tezmer ad tessiweḍ taluft-a ?

 

 

Iswi (but) n Yiwunak Yeddukklen netta d aḥbas n unnerni n Ccinwa. Asmi ay d-iwet utsunami-nni n Asya, Washington tuzen tallalt (aεiwen) tameqrant i wid yenḍerren deg Indunisya. Dγa imir-nni fuṛsen Yimarikaniyen bnan abuḍ aserdasi (base militire) deg temnaḍt tindunisit n Aceh. Abuḍ-a iqubel Azzi (Détroit) n Malacca, yerna seg wazzi-nni ay ittekk upitṛul n Ugaraw Ahendi γer Ccinwa.

 

 

Taqcict tafγanit sdeffir ma bran-d yiγallen

n Temsisit Taṭlasit i tleffuγin (lbumbat) γef taddart-nsen

 

Ass-a, Iwunak Yeddukklen ssersen iman-nsen deg wemkan-a yesεan azal. Lemmer ad yili kra n wugur d amecṭuḥ akked Ccinwa, Imarikaniyen ad reglen azzi-nni (détroit) yerna ur ttajjan apitṛul ad yaweḍ γer Ccinwa. Icinwaten simal la tteḥwijin apitṛul, yerna imi ay asen-gan Yimarikaniyen akk-a, qqlen ttnadin iberdan niḍen ay seg ara d-ssiwḍen apitṛul γer tmurt-nsen. Xemmen ad sqedcen Birmanya, d tamurt ay yesεan tiγbula (ressources) yerna tezmer ad tejj Icinwaten ad kecmen γer Bangladesh. Daγen, Icinwaten zemren ad sqedcen asagen (lmerṣ̣a) n Gwadar deg Pakistan. Yagi,  asagen-a d Ccinwa ay t-yebnan deg temnaḍt n Balucistan ay yellan d tamnaḍt tameqrant akk n Pakistan: teṭṭef 48% seg wakal n tmurt. Maca daγen Balucistan d nettat ay d tamnaḍt ur zdiγen waṭas n medden deg Pakistan: ala 5% seg yimezdaγen n Pakistan ay yeddren deg-s. Akal n temnaḍt-a yeffer aṭas n lgaz ed upitṛul. Pekin tezmer daγen ad tebnu aqadus n upitṛul ara d-yasen seg Iṛan, ad d-yezger Balucistan ed ad yaweḍ arma d Ccinwa tutrimt (taγerbit). Maca Iwunak Yeddukklen bγan ad gen akk ay-n zemren i wakk-n ur ttajjan Ccinwa ad tekcem γer temnaḍt-a. Γef way-a, Imarikaniyen ttεawanen wid ay yekkaten akk-n ad bḍun Balucistan ed Pakistan, i wakk-n d Iwunak Yeddukklen ara yeṭṭfen asagen n Gwadar.

 

 

Ihi seg tama, Pakistan tesεa ugur n Yipactunen, seg tama niḍen, tesεa win n Balucistan, d tamnaḍt tameqrant, maca tezmer ad tt-tesṛuḥ, dγa s way-a, nezmer ad d-nini Pakistan tezmer ad teftutes d timura timecṭuḥin, akk-n ay teḍra deg Belqan. Ass-a, aγref (cceεb) apaklistani yeqqel yettarra lbal-nnes ugar γer taluft-a, yerna d netta ay yessekfen ad yewliwel akk-n ad yeḥbes axeṣ̣ṣ̣ar-a, yerna ay-a s tuẓẓεa n Yiwunak Yeddukklen seg Pakistan. Seg tama niḍen, yessekf daγen γef yimussa imagdayen igrawalen (mouvements démocratiques révolutionnaires) n tama-a ad wliwlen ula d nitni. Yuγ lḥal, ay-n la as-iḍerrun i Pakistan ass-a am way-n ay as-yeḍran i Yuguslavya: tama-a akk ad taγ deg-s tmes d tameqrant.

 

 

Sγur Grégoire Lalieu ed Michel Collon.

Tasuqilt sγur: Omar Mouffok

 

 

Taγbalut (source): http://www.michelcollon.info/index.php?view=article&catid=1&id=2082&option=com_content&Itemid=2

 

 

Γer daγen:

 

Amgaru n Obama γef Pakistan (sγur Webster G. Tarpley)

 

Iwunak Yeddukklen bγan ad hudden Pakistan (sγur Rashid Zubair)

 

 

 

 

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Ṛ ṛ  Ṣ ṣ̣ Ṭ̣ṭ  Ẓ ẓ Σ  ε

 

 

 

 

 

 

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